The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) contracted Wellspring to assess the impact that import taxes, customs duties, and other barriers to importing premix and fortification equipment had on staple food fortification in low- and middle- income countries.


Our team conducted 25 stakeholder interviews with food producers, premix companies, and industry associations across Africa and Asia to understand the premix supply chain and direct and indirect costs associated with importing premix and fortification equipment. We also analysed secondary data on import tax and customs duty rates applied to different types of vitamin and mineral premix across geographies.

Our final report identified the extent to which import taxes, customs duties, and other import barriers affect availability and affordability of different fortified staple foods, including wheat and maize flour, rice, salt, and edible oil. The report also provided country case studies to highlight some of the findings, focusing on Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Tanzania. Finally, we provided recommendations for policymakers on how to utilise import tax policies to incentivize staple food fortification.

Funders and clients


Team members

Irene Hu Georgina Duffin

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